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Synthetic Rutile

Natural rutile has many times the fire shown by diamond, but it is masked by the red, brown or black body colour. The black material has been used in mourning jewellery, but rutile is most usually seen as rich, reddish brown, needle-like inclusions within quartz or within other stones, where the rutile crystals create a star effect by reflecting light.

Igneous and metamorphic rocks and alluvial deposits in Australia, Brazil, USA, Italy, Mexico and Norway.

Cause of Color : As per dopant used
Chemical Composition :

Titanium Dioxide – TiO2


Classification / Type :

The material is found abundant as inclusions (silk, needles, crystals, etc.) in number of gemstones preferably in quartz, tourmaline, ruby and sapphire but large facet table crystals are quite rare therefore gemological importance lies in the synthetic counterpart produced by flame fusion method.


Crystal System / Forms :

Tetragonal System


Cuts & Uses :

Facetted cuts, etc.


Dispersion : 0.290 (high fire)
Hardness : 6 - 6.5
Lustre : Vitreous
Magnification :

Generally clean, strong doubling giving a hazy appearance, dispersive fire


Optic Character :

Anisotropic, D.R.; Uniaxial Positive


Pleochroism : Weak
Refractive Index / Birefringence :

2.616 – 2.903 / 0.287


Simulants (with separation tests) :

G.G.G. (dispersion, doubling, S.G.), Y.A.G. (dispersion, doubling), Synthetic Cubic Zirconia (S.G., dispersion, doubling), Diamond (dispersion, doubling), Strontium Titanate (dispersion, doubling), Sphene (doubling, dispersion, inclusions), Zircon (dispersion, spectrum), etc.


Specific Tests :

Very high doubling and dispersive fire.


Spectrum :

Not diagnostic


Synthesis :

Flame Fusion Method


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