Quartz is the second-most-abundant mineral in the Earth’s continental crust, after feldspar. It is made up of a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon-oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall formula SiO2. There are many different varieties of quartz, several of which are semi-precious gemstones. Throughout the world, varieties of quartz have been since antiquity the most commonly used minerals in the making of jewelry and hardstone carvings.
The quartz group includes a number of different species / varieties. There are two categories crystalline quartz and cryptocrystalline quartz (chalcedony).