Citrine is the yellow or golden yellow variety of quartz. The yellow coloration, due to the presence of iron, is also responsible for the name, derived from the word “citrus”. Natural citrine is usually a pale yellow, but rare; most citrine on the market is heat-treated amethyst.
Gem-quality citrine is extremely rare. The best material is found in Brazil, Spain, Madagascar, and the former USSR.
Citrine has been used to imitate topaz and was once called Brazilian topaz.